The Cromoenos method
Cromoenos is a patented routine analysis method. In 7 minutes, it predicts the Colour Intensity of the future wine and provides a , by objectively and reproducibly (unlike grape tasting) assessing the quality of the tannins and the aromatic profile the wine will have.
It provides 2 Key Quality Indicators (KQIs): the Probable Stable Colour (CPE) and Phenolic Maturity Index (IMF), using only basic laboratory tools, without having to send samples to external laboratories.
The analysis can be performed in the winery laboratories or at grape reception to assess the quality “trailer by trailer” and thus separate and orient the grapes to their corresponding winemaking specifications.
What benefits does Cromoenos provide?
Precise choice of harvest time
Cromoenos predicts the ideal harvest time from the maximum stable Potential Colour Intensity and the lowest greenness index of tannins.
Our system uses the veraison to predict the Phenolic Maturity Index (IMF) achievable at harvest time: A totally innovative tool for use in the vineyard to ensure the grape reaches a high level of maturity.
It also detects overripe or dried grapes, due to dehydration, moth attack, botritys or simple rupture caused by weak skins.
Our technological solution leaves behind incomplete quality estimation methods, such as probable alcoholic strength, pH and total acidity. In addition to taking 4 hours – compared to 7 minutes with Cromoenos – these methods provide an anthocyanin content; however, grapes can be high in anthocyanins and produce tannic, green wines. Other methods are not very reproducible or are complex, such as the grape tasting, which does not provide a quantifiable number, such as the Phenolic Maturity Index (IMF) or the Probable Stable Colour (CPE), as in our solution.
If grapes have low IMF values, we can choose those grapes for wines with a fresh fruit profile or flavoured fruit wines.
Fair payment at grape reception
Our solution allows grapes to be paid for by evaluating the colour points, but corrected by a factor which is a function of the Phenolic Maturity Index. There are grape varieties that genetically have more probable colour (CPE), but if their IMF is high, they will give coloured wines that will be concentrated only with green tannins and herbaceous tastes. Thus, their value would be reduced according to the IMF value. The Cromoenos system calculates a payment for grapes according to their Key Quality Indicators, along with that of health.
Using Cromoenos, you pay for the actual potential quality of the wine that will be obtained, taking into account the IMF value. As the aromatic profile of the wine is also linked to the Phenolic Maturation Index, another important component in the price – besides the probable alcoholic content (GAP) and CPE (corrected by the IMF) – is the Quality Index (CI), which is a marker that evaluates the absence of defects such as herbaceous or green tastes. This component assesses the potential aromatic compound content after fermentation of both aromas and aromatic precursors. For example, a Garnacha grape with little colour, IC 10 and IMF 1.55 will be more expensive than a Cabernet Sauvignon with IC 20 and IMF 1.75.
Dried or dehydrated grapes with a lot of colour, but with hard, green tannins, will give defective wines despite their high quality values, according to other evaluation methods that only take into account GAP, pH, total acidity, gluconic acid and the Colour Intensity measure of juice obtained from grapes. The Cromoenos method measures and evaluates them as they are: as very poor quality grapes.
CONCLUSION: If grape growers are not paid for the attributes that really contribute to quality, they will continue to produce the same grapes. The Cromoenos Platform offers a simple, accurate method to give a fair price for the grapes produced.
Using IMF, CPE and probable Total Polyphenol Index (IPT) data measured at maturation, we can visualise the tannic structure of the wine and its aromatic profile. These data allow us to design the winemaking.
The IMF acts as a guide for allocating grapes to their different winemaking protocols: Either to preserve the fresh fruit flavour, or in tanks of grapes selected for PREMIUM wines. If their value is high (unripe grapes), they can be used in tanks for short or cold macerations with an intense micro-oxygenation programme. Wineries that buy grapes can separate them for different destinations upon entry. It is not the same to mix grapes beforehand, as to blend well-produced wines afterwards.
Decision making in viticulture
All cultivation techniques and operations are aimed at producing grapes of good ripeness. The data provided by Cromoenos give a very accurate idea of grape quality and provide comparable numerical values year after year. Our system is the best tool for finding out which grape growing treatments and practices are the most suitable for each vineyard.
If phenolic maturation is inhibited due to water stress, it allows for irrigation intervention to control the IMF until maturation restarts, if feasible.
In addition to being a very good tool for selecting the grapes for the best wines, it gives information about which soils are suitable for achieving good ripeness; that is, it allows you to select the best estates.
Applied from veraison, you will know if the grape will mature well, and you can act accordingly.
What parameters does Cromoenos obtain?
Evolution of the Phenolic Maturation Index (IMF)
During maturation, the IMF decreases proportionally, and the tannin profile changes from being hard, vegetable and of intermediate astringency to a fatty and smooth tannin. In turn, the aromatic profile changes from herbaceous to fresh, ripe, and very ripe (not dried) fruit.
As the IMF goes from 2.0 to 1.4, the concentration of tannins starts at a minimum and gives the sensation of little astringency but without body, although they are very hard. As it progresses, the tannins increase and, since they are vegetables, the intensity (liana blue) is very high before decreasing. Although there are tannins, they are soft and full-bodied.
Tannins, Probable Colour and IMF
This figure shows that grapes can have a very good GAP, pH, and Anthocyanins or Colour parameters, but if the IMF is 1.70, the grape will be green and may also lose colour.
The advantage of Cromoenos® is the rapid identification of the values for Probable Stable Colour, Phenolic Maturity Index and other Quality Indicators, based on the extraction of the colouring matter from the grapes and calculation of the analysed data.
In just 7 minutes, Cromoenos® offers you a simple, fast and methodical procedure; designed for inexperienced users, and without the need to interpret the results.
Starting from a sample of grapes (300 g for ripeness control or 3 kg in the Cromoenos, Grano X Tractor), a grape mixture is prepared in the blender for 1 min.
It is transferred to a container where hot extraction is performed in the Cromoenos Thermo extractor (X-Tractor) after the addition of the Cromoenos Kit Reagents. The extract is then centrifuged in the X-pin-it microcentrifuge for 2 min.
The sample is diluted with HCl and inserted into the spectrophotometer or photometer. The absorbance is read at 280 nm and 520 nm. If the grape variety is not calibrated, it is diluted in Reagent C and read at 420, 520, and 620 nm. The data are entered on the website platform to obtain the results.
After entering the data on the platform, the CP FA (IC after Alcoholic Fermentation), CPE after malolactic fermentation, cold treatment and correction with sulphur dioxide, IPT, Total anthocyanins (pH 1), Extractable anthocyanins (pH 3.2) from the Glories Method and Cromoenos Phenolic Maturity Index are obtained
Cromoenos® complete platform
High temperature Colour Extractor with magnetic stirring, temperature probe and digital display
Cromoenos Kit and Software
Colour development kit (pack of 2 x 250 mL bottles). Gives access to online calculation of results in the Cromoenos software
Microcentrifuge for 12 x 1.5 mL microtubes. Maximum speed 12,000 rpm.
UV-VIS spectrophotometer with 190-1100 nm range, digital display and variable optical path cuvette holder.
Grape extractor from the trailer and sent directly to the reception laboratory
Set of variable volume micropipettes. 20-100 uL / 100-1000 uL, Socorex
Braun grape blender
Braun Professional blender with adjustable speed and 3 types of blades
Bioenos® advanced consulting
20 h Consulting to interpret advanced KQIs, such as aromatic profile and Glories index, agronomic recommendations and winemaking
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